Causes, Risk Factors & Complications of Fissures

Anal fissures are small tears occurring within the thin mucosa which lines the anus. Most often anal fissures are found to occur when large & hard stools are passed during bowel movement. Fissures are typically found to cause pain & bleeding while passing stools. Many patients suffering from fissures also experience spasms in the ring of the muscle at the end of anal sphincter. Although fissures are quite common among young infants, these can also affect people of any age-groups. Most fissures are treatable with increased fiber consumption & Sitz baths; others however may require medications & even surgery in some cases.

Common Causes of Anal Fissures

Passing large or hard stools is the most common cause of developing anal fissures. Constipation & straining during bowel movement is the underlying problem causing fissures. Chronic diarrhea, inflammation of anorectal region caused by Crohn’s disease, or some other inflammatory bowel disease is the other causes of developing fissures. Many women are also found to develop fissures during childbirth. Some of the other lesser known causes of developing anal fissures are herpes, syphilis & anal cancer.

complications of anal fissure

Risk Factors for Developing Anal Fissures

While older adults are also quite prone to developing anal fissures, this condition is most common among infants. Decreased blood flow to the anorectal region is the primary reason for developing fissures. Pregnant women are also at risk of developing anal fissures during or after childbirth due to straining at the time of delivery. Factors which increase risk of developing anal fissures include the following.

  • Constipation – passing of large & hard stools & straining during bowel movement due to constipation increases risk of tearing at the anus.
  • Infancy – Although doctors aren’t sure why, several infants experience anal fissures during their first year of life.
  • Aging – Due to decreased blood flow to rectal area & slowed blood circulation, many older adults also develop anal fissures.
  • Childbirth – Women are largely at risk of developing anal fissures due to straining at the time of childbirth & afterwards.
  • Crohn’s disease – Chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract is caused due to this inflammatory bowel disease. As a result this can also make the lining of the anal canal more prone to tearing.
  • Anal intercourse – This can also be a risk factor for developing anal fissures.

Complications Following Anal Fissures

The most common complications of anal fissures include the following.

  • Failing to heal – Anal fissures which fail to heal within 6 weeks of time are considered chronic. Chronic fissures may require further treatment.
  • Recurring fissures – Patients who have experienced anal fissures once are prone to have them again.
  • Tear extending to surrounding muscles – Tear that is caused by anal fissures can extend into the internal anal sphincter. This will make it more difficult for the anal fissure to heal. Moreover, unhealed anal fissures are liable to trigger a cycle of discomfort. In such situations, the patient may require medications or surgery for reducing pain & for repairing or removing the anal fissure.

Preventing Anal Fissures

As constipation is the key reason of occurrence for anal fissures, avoiding it would be the key prevention for anal fissures. If you feel like you’re suffering from chronic constipation, here are few preventive measures you could incorporate to prevent anal fissures:

  • Fibre intake in abundance

A great way to add plenty of fibre in your food is to add fruits and vegetables to your diet. The average fibre intake for an adult would be about 20 to 25 grams per day. Some of the good sources of fibre include oat bran, wheat bran, whole grains, peas, seeds, nuts, beans, citrus fruits, etc.

You can also try fibre supplements if you think your diet lacks enough fibre. Make sure to drink plenty of fluids along with your fibre intake. This will avoid bloating and gas.

  • Hydration

Make sure to stay hydrated. This will help prevent constipation. Keeping yourself hydrated will make your stool softer and your bowel movements smoother.

  • Exercise

Another major reason for anal fissures is lack of physical activity. Regular exercise of at least 30 minutes will keep your digestive system healthy and moving.

  • Never say ‘no’ to your urge to go

Try not to delay or avoid a bowel movement whenever you feel like it. Ignoring this could lead to the weakening of signals that are indicators of bowel movement. Hence, the longer you hold, the drier and harder your stool gets.

Advanced Laser Treatment for Anal Fissures

Laser treatment is an advanced procedure for chronic anal fissures. People suffering from chronic anal fissures can visit any of the 5 Laser Piles clinic in Hyderabad & Secunderabad for treatment. Laser treatment for fissures at our clinics is quite simple & will be over in a short span of time. This is a nonsurgical treatment which is performed without any stitches, incision, or complicated surgery. Most patients undergoing laser treatment at Laser Piles for anal fissures get back to work on the same day. While 90% of the pain caused due to fissures will immediately go away after treatment, the remaining 10% will also vanish within a few weeks when a good & thick skin layer is formed over the fissure. Don’t panic, just come to any Laser Piles Clinic & be assured that your anal fissures would be a thing of the past!

Schedule an appointment today. Call us: 910 850 3674, Email:

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